If we take as our starting point the Ordnance Survey maps (Explorer 208-9) we see the tributary rising from springs at Ashwell in Herts, described as the ‘River Rhee’. When it crosses the county boundary it is called the ‘River Cam or Rhee’ repeatedly until after the Hauxton junction with the Granta, whereafter it is named the Cam.
In his earlier article on the name of the river (1 – see end notes) Cecil Chapman argued that there was little evidence for Rhee as a proper name for the Cam before 1800 and that he was not sure why it was used later by the Ordnance Survey. Chapman referred to the fact that the records of the original unpublished survey maps compiled between 1799-1811 by the military surveyors were destroyed by fire in the Second World War, leaving their sources undiscovered.
However there is a good deal of cartographic and topographical evidence for the use of Rhee as a name, which would have been available to the surveyors and would have informed the naming of the river in the first published OS map of 1836.
According to authorities on English place names the word Rhee derives from an old English word (ea, rea or rhee) meaning water course or river, which first came into use no later than the 13th cent. Ekwall gives examples of Ree or Rhee as alternative names for the Ashwell tributory of the Cam for the 16-17th centuries (2).
Chapman can find only one early map, that of Philip Lea in 1869 which refers to the Ashwell tributory of the Cam as the Rhee. However Sir Henry Chauncey in his topographical survey of ”The Historical Antiquities of Hertfordshire’, first published in 1700, contains a map by H. Moll of the county naming the river at Ashwell the Rhee. Perhaps Lea is Moll’s source?
Chauncey describes the river rising at Ashwell thus: ‘The Rhee (a Saxon term that signifies a water course or river) comes from a source of springs, which spin from small veins out of rock or stone, joining together at a space of two furlongs, making a torrent that drives a mill, one for wheat the other for mault; and on the sudden swells to a fair river falling away by Arrington bridge crosses the road called Ermine Street and overtaking the Cam (Granta?) leads to Cambridge’, (3rd edn.,vol.1, p.3a).
A set of ‘New and Corrected Maps of England and Wales’ published by Moll in 1724 shows the ‘Rhea River’ rising at Ashwell on the Herts. map and named the ‘Cam River’ from Shingay on the Cambs. map. J. Ellis’s ‘English Atlas’ of 1773, Laurie and Whittle’s ‘New and Improved English Atlas’ of 1808, John Cary’s ‘New and Correct English Atlas’, of 1807 and the ‘New British Atlas’ of 1832 all show the ‘Rhea’ or ‘Rhee’ river rising at Ashwell on the Herts. map and ‘Cam river’ on the Cambs. map, from Wendy or lower down at Barrington. (Map collection, Cambridge University Library).
It is also interesting to note that these later maps generally refer to the spring source of the river at Ashwell as Rhea or Rhee ‘Head’. The surveyor and map maker, John Oliver published a map of Herts. in 1695, based on his previous survey notes and sketches of twenty years before, which describes the ‘Rhee river’ flowing from Ashwell. John Warburton’s later map of 1749 shows Rhee ‘head’ as well as river. (Four County Maps of Herts., with an introduction by D. Hodson, 1985).
Salmon’s ‘History of Hertfordshire’ (1728) notes Ashwell as standing ‘upon the source of the River Rhee, which breaks out of the rock in this village to form many springs, with such force as to form a stream’. Again J.E. Cussans’ later ‘History of Hertfordshire’ (1869) describes ‘the river Rhee, a tributory of the Cam,’ (vol. 1, p. 23) taking its rise from the springs at Ashwell.
So there is much evidence from maps and other sources to show a stronger association beween the Rhee and its Hertfordshire origins. Across the county boundary the naming of the river is more closely associated with the city of Cambridge. The name being a ‘back formation’ from the town name. The OS maps merely reflect this distinction between the two counties. One can therefore imagine the surveyors looking at the available sources and hedging their bets.
The names of rivers often change over time and the Rhee or Cam is a case in point. It is interesting to note that current practice in the valley, for example in terms of the names of local business’s, is to use the appellation ‘Rhee’ rather than ‘Cam’; although geographical sources have generally referred to the ‘upper Cam valley’ when describing the area through which the Ashwell tributory runs.
An interesting postcript to this blog is provided by a piece in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society (PCAS, see note 3) by Stephen Yeates – ‘Senuna, Goddess of the River Rhee or Henney’. This concerns the 2002 discovery of a hoard of Romano British gold, jewellery and silver figurines dedicated to the Dea Senuna, located near the bank of the River Rhee about 1.5km from the spring at Ashwell. Yeates suggests that the Ashwell tributory would originally have born the name of this river goddess and discusses the linguistical route by which it ended up being called the Rhee. To summarise his article: Senuna was shortened to Senna, which in turn becomes Henna – Henney, ey, eg or ea being associated in Old English with water and then re, rea or rhee in Middle English. See also my later blogs: The River Rhee – an ancient sacred river and Romano-British villas/cemetaries and shrine complexes in the wider region.
1. C. Chapman, ‘The Name of the River’, chapter 1, ‘Cam or Rhee’, Barrington Local Conservation Society, 1973. (Available at Cambridge Central Library local history collection).
2.Elbert Ekwall, English River Names, Oxford, 1928, pp. 336-7; Glover, Mower and Stanton, The Place Names of Hertfordshire; P.Reaney, Place Names of Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely, CUP, 1943.
3. PCAS, XCVII, 2009, pp. 65-8.